Coronary artery disease is a condition wherein the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles get blocked or become narrow. It is caused by the build-up of plaque made up of either fatty material or calcium at the inside lining of the wall of the coronary artery. Coronary bypass surgery is one of the best treatment options for correcting coronary artery disease. Dr. Sujay Shad, Heart Specialist in Delhi, explains that undergoing coronary bypass surgery can ease the patient with symptoms like chest discomfort, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythm, and shortness of breath. It can also increase the chances of survival of the patient with better life quality. The surgery helps improve the blood supply to the heart muscles by redirecting the flow of blood around the section of the partially blocked or completely blocked coronary artery.
How to prepare for coronary bypass surgery?
Dr. Sujay Shad, heart surgeon in Delhi,India gives a detailed explanation of the procedure to the patients, conducts a physical exam to check for their overall health, and review their medical history, before performing the surgery. He also gives certain instructions to the patients about any modifications in their diet and medications or restrictions in the physical activities before the surgery.
The patients must also inform the doctor about any allergies, current intake of medications, and any history of bleeding disorders during the consultation period or before undergoing surgery. For a healthy recovery of the patient, smoking, and drug or alcohol consumption must be avoided as soon as possible before the procedure commences.
Dr. Sujay Shad, specializes in performing lifesaving heart surgeries like Heart Transplants, Coronary Bypasses, HOCM, Aortic Surgery, and Mitral Valve at the Best Hospital for Heart Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, located at Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi.
What to expect during coronary bypass surgery?
The coronary bypass surgery in Delhi involves the following steps:
- The anesthesiologist provides general anesthesia or intravenous sedation and continuously monitors the patient for vital signs like breathing rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen levels throughout the surgery. As the patient goes to sleep, a ventilator is connected to help him/her breathe during surgery.
- A catheter is placed into the urinary bladder to drain all urine.
- Next, the operation site is cleaned with an antiseptic solution to keep it sterile.
- The heart surgeon makes an incision in one or both legs or one of the wrists to take out the blood vessels to be used as a graft. After removal, the incisions are closed with sutures.
- Another vertical cut is made by the doctor in the mid-section of the chest extending to above the navel. The breast-bone (sternum) is also cut lengthwise into two halves to expose the heart.
- Now the surgery may be performed using a heart-lung bypass machine or without it. In the off-pump procedure, the area around the diseased coronary artery is stabilized with a special instrument and the rest of the heart continues to function normally. For the on-pump procedure, the heart is stopped permanently and the blood is pumped using a heart-lung bypass machine.
- In the bypass graft procedure, one end of the harvested blood vessel is sewed over a tiny opening made in the aorta and another end is attached to the coronary artery just below the blockage or narrowing of the artery. In some cases, an internal mammary artery may be used as a graft which requires only one end to be sewed to the opening of the coronary artery just below the blockage.
- The patient may need multiple grafts based on how many blockages are there and what is their location.
- The doctor closely examines the working of the bypass graft bypassing some blood through it.
- When all grafts are properly positioned and are in working condition, all the incisions made in the chest are closed using sutures. In the case of an on-pump procedure, the heart may either restart on its own after removing the heart-lung bypass machine or would require a mild electric shock for restoring the beating of the heart. Sometimes, the pacing of the heart may be done using a pacemaker device.
- After procedure completion, the surgeon inserts drainage tubes in the chest to take out extra fluids and blood from around the heart.
- Lastly, a sterile dressing or a bandage is applied over the surgical site.
Coronary arteries supply the heart with energy, nutrients, and oxygen. A blockage in these arteries can lead to cause a heart attack or other problems. Hence it is essential to keep the heart well supplied with blood. To know more about Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Surgery Cost in Delhi, schedule an appointment with the best heart specialist in India, Dr. Sujay Shad.